The Relative Amounts of Essential Oils in Hops Gives Them Unique Flavor and Aroma – #365papers – 2017 – 73

#365papers for March 14, 2017

Auerbach, Dost, and Davidson, 2000, Characterization of verietal differences in essential oil components of hops (Humulus lupulus) by SFC-FTIR spectroscopy: Journal of AOAC International, v. 83, p. 621-626.

What’s it about?

This paper discusses a spectroscopy method to explore what makes the flavors and aromas of different hop varieties distinct. They focus on the three most common components of hop essential oils: humulene, caryophyllene, and myrcene. Continue reading

Appearance and Spread of Modern Forests in Asia and North America – #365papers – 2017 – 72

#365papers for March 13, 2017

Baskin and Baskin, 2016. Origins and relationships of the mixed mesophytic forest of Oregon-Idaho, China, and Kentucky: Review and synthesis: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, v. 101, p. 525-552.

What’s it about?

Modern forests of North America and Asia are remarkably similar in the species of trees present, but there is no obvious connection between the two. This paper discusses the lead hypotheses to explain the similarities Continue reading

Conservation in Beer: Barley, Hops, and Finished Beer – #365papers – 2017 – 71

#365papers for March 12, 2017

Jerumanis, 1985, Quantitative analysis of flavanoids in barley, hops, and beer by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): Journal of the Institute of Brewing, v. 91, p. 250-252.

What’s it about?

This paper takes a liquid chromatographic approach to determining where compounds important to the success of beer come from. Polyphenols (including flavanoids) can contribute to haze, coloration, and taste in beer. The authors describe methods to extract the polyphenols and analyze them.

This is just a methods paper, so they really don’t draw conclusions from the analyses that they did. Should such a paper be published today, there would have to be an important research question associated with it. Science has changed in the last 30 years… Continue reading

What Makes Aroma Hops So Fragrant? – #365papers – 2017 – 70

#365papers for March 11, 2017

Nance and Setzer, 2011, Volatile components of aroma hops (Humulus lupulus L.) commonly used in beer brewing: Journal of Brewing and Distilling, v. 2, p. 16-22.

What’s it about?

The authors use gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GCMS) to determine what makes the aromatic nature of different varieties of hops so distinct. They use the similarities and differences to show which hop varieties are more closely related to each other. Continue reading

Lakes Come and Go, 50 Million Years Ago – #365papers – 2017 – 69

#365papers for March 10, 2017

Davis, Wiegand, Carroll, and Chamberlain, 2008, The effect of dreainage reorganization on paleoaltimetry studies: An example from the Paleogene Laramide foreland: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 275, p. 258-268.

What’s it about?

The authors use isotopes of carbon, oxygen, and strontium, plus relative abundances of strontium and calcium in lake deposits to interpret water sources, connectivity of lakes, and general environmental parameters for the Uinta Basin during the Eocene (~55-~43 million years ago). Continue reading

Synaesthesia and Autism Aren’t So Different… – #365papers – 2017 – 68

#365papers for March 9, 2017

Ward, Hoadley, Hughes, Smith, Allison and Baron-Cohen, and Simner, 2017, Atypical sensory sensitivity as a shared feature between synaesthesia and autism: Nature Scientific Reports.

What’s it about?

Autism is often accompanied with sensory hyper- or hyposensitivity. Synaesthesia (the perception of one type of sensory input from a different type of stimulus, like colors for text) is also a sensory sensitivity. Studies have shown that many autistic people are also synaesthetic, but the two sensory experiences so not always co-occur.

This paper assesses the degree of similarity between autistic individuals and non-autistic synasthetes compared to neurotypical, non-synastheic controls.

It turns out that synaesthetes and autistic individuals are most similar in “attention to detail” which is in part related to why many autistic individuals also possess savant characteristics like amazing memories. Continue reading

The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum in the Northern Hemisphere – #365papers – 2017 – 67

#365papers for March 8, 2017

Jovane, Florindo Coccioni, Dianares-Turell, Marsili, Monechi, Roberts, Sprovieri, 2007, The middle Eocene climatic optimum event in the Contessa Highway section, Umbrian Apennines, Italy: GSA Bulletin, v. 119, p. 413-427.

What’s it about?

This paper like others I’ve read recently discusses the abundance of single-celled organisms in the ocean called foraminifera (forams). The overall abundance of different species plus isotopic analysis of the fossils themselves can provide insights about climate during the middle Eocene. Continue reading

Paleogene Antarctic ocean circulation from isotopes – #365papers – 2017 – 66

#365papers for March 7, 2017

Kennett and Stott, 1990 Proteus and Proto-Oceanus: ancestral paleogene oceans as revealed from Antarctic stable isotopic results; ODP Leg 113: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Programs, Scientific Results, v. 113, p. 865-880.

What’s it about?

These are the published results of an ocean drilling cruise that took place in Antarctica in the late 1980’s. A core from the ocean floor was drilled and various parts of it were studied. This paper discusses geochemical results from the skeletons (tests) of single-celled organisms called foraminifera (forams) found throughout the core. From these results, the authors discuss deep ocean currents from millions of years ago. Continue reading

The Paleocene-Eocene boundary in deep ocean foraminifera – #365papers – 2017 – 65

#365papers for March 6, 2017

Thomas and Shackleton, 1996, The Paleocene-Eocene benthic forminiferal extinction and stable isotope anomalies, in Knox, Corfield, Dunay, eds., Correlation of the Early Paleogene in Northwest Europe: Geological Society Special Publication n. 101, p. 401-441.

What’s it about?

This paper examines the abundance and geochemistry of single-celled organisms called foraminiferans (forams) that were living in the oceans around 55 million years ago. Forams are still present today worldwide. They make little tiny calcite skeletons (called tests) that can be used to identify the species and then can be analyzed.

Using these foram skeletons, the authors identified the many species that lived in the ocean before and after the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and recognized some extinctions associated with the boundary. With geochemical analysis, they showed that there are some significant anomalies (rapid, unexpected changes) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Continue reading

Population Structure and Cheek Swabs – #365papers – 2017 – 64

#365papers for March 5, 2017

Han and 18 others, 2017, Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America: Nature Communications.

What’s it about?

This paper uses the anonymous results from over 770 thousand AncestryDNA genomes to examine the clustering of certain genomes (ancestries) in different regions of North America. It supports empirically what we already knew: That scandinavians are all over Minnesota and North and South Dakota; that there’s an Appalachian population that was unique and isolated; and that Utahns are… special. Continue reading